Information Technology Management : Information Technology Management is about monitoring and managing information technology organizational systems, such as hardware, software, computer networks, data centers, and including the staff who operate them. In short IT Management focuses on how information systems can operate efficiently. This effort is no less important, in helping HR to be able to work better.
More and more organizations are now placing Information Technology (IT) as a central point in their business strategy. In the digital world, the IT Department is tasked with more work than ever and is expected to be at the forefront of enterprise business innovation.
“The digital workspace brings work and life together – a virtual space with on-demand apps, services and information,” according to Forbes Insights. “For users, this means access to the technology they need, when they want it, they can use any device to get it.”
The Essence of Information Technology Management
The IT environment consists of a variety of hardware, network, software components, including computers, servers, routers, applications, microservices, and mobile technologies. IT infrastructure can be on-premises, in the cloud, or in the form of a hybrid platform that engages and integrates the two.
The IT Manager’s job is to monitor and manage IT systems to ensure that they are always available and functioning properly. The IT Manager’s responsibilities include the following tasks:
- Determine business requirements for IT systems
- Manage T budgets and costs
- Monitoring security and compliance
- Network control and security system
- Implementing new software, hardware and data systems
- Provide technical assistance
The IT department is usually chaired by the Chief Information Offices (CIO). They define IT strategy by linking it to business objectives and ensuring that it can be implemented.
Many CIOs believe that their work will evolve in the next two or three years. They hope that there will be a shift from activities that are operational and management in nature to activities that are more valuable and strategic.
Why is Information Technology Management Important?
Information technology supports all business activities. Automation, data processing, and network connectivity open previously unimaginable doors for capability and efficiency. Today it is difficult to separate technology from day-to-day business operations.
At the same time, organizations have weak points when information systems fail or perform poorly. Network downtime, data loss, or the presence of malware have a severe impact on day-to-day business activities. The average cost of this impact in the United States is USD 3.86 million. Fantastic amount. Therefore, IT Management practices ensure that IT is secure, always available and performing optimally.
CIOs have a leading role in adopting new technologies to improve business operations, As one IT executive suggested: “New technologies, such as machine learning, analytics, chatbots, blockchain, can revolutionize the way we deliver IT services.”
“IT is on the verge of a completely unexpected change,” according to CIO magazine. “Every company in the technology business is facing realities that are impacting dramatic changes: automation, decentralized technology budgets, adoption of cloud services, and most recently artificial intelligence as business needs.”
Scope of Information Technology Management
IT Strategic Plan
Currently, business strategy alone is not enough to face the competition. The business strategy which is usually stated in the business plan blueprint document must be accompanied by an IT strategy. The goal is to make optimal use of the application of information technology as the main part of the company’s information system. The IT strategy must be aligned with the organization’s strategy. From the vision, mission and values of the organization, IT goals will be generated which then become IT processes which are then measured into Critical Success Factors and Key Performance Indicators.
The IT Strategic Plan is a holistic design of goals, principles, and tactics related to the use of technology within the enterprise. The strategy referred to here focuses on the technology itself and the human resources that directly manage the technology. IT strategic planning must be aligned and aligned with the organization’s strategy.
In general, the outputs to be achieved in a strategy include the following 3 main things:
1. Information System – is a detailed definition of the type of information needed by the company and matters related to it such as: the speed of processing data into information, the level of detail of information, how to display information, volume and transaction information, the person in charge of the information, etc.
2. Information Technology – includes hardware components (computers, infrastructure, communication tools, etc.) and software (applications, operating systems, databases, etc.) that must be available to produce the specified information system.
3. Information management – regarding human resources who will implement the information system built and develop information technology in line with the company’s development in the future.
For each of the main points above, several scenarios are proposed, where each scenario has its own variables such as costs, benefits, risks, impacts, level of difficulty, obstacles and others. These scenarios will be discussed and determined in the meeting to take the best. Then, an implementation plan should be made based on project management.
It is a mapping or planning of information needs in an organization. Useful as a guide and blueprint for future directions. The goal is that the IT Department can meet the needs of the organization’s business strategy. Information architecture integrates information requirements, system components and supporting technologies. IT architecture has content in the form of plans that can answer the following questions:
1. What data is collected?
2. Where and how is data collected?
3. How to submit data?
4. Where will the data be stored?
5. What application programs will use the data and how are they connected to the complete system?
IT Project Management
The development of information systems in a company is carried out by project management. IT Project Management is a way of managing resources (human, data, and budget) to achieve the specified goals, namely information systems/information technology projects.
Quality, cost and time are usually major concerns in project management. Broadly speaking, there are 3 types of projects that dominate the procurement of information technology solutions in Indonesia, namely:
1. Infrastructure. This project is related to the physical development of IT infrastructure, ranging from cabling, computer procurement, to the construction of a LAN/WAN computer network.
2. Software. Software purchased and implemented by companies such as Microsoft modules to enterprise information systems such as SAP and Oracle.
3. In-House Custom Development. Is the development of application software using common programming languages such as Visual Basic, Cobol, Pascal combined with database systems such as Microsoft Access, SQL Server, Oracle, etc.
For each type of information system developed, the required investment costs must be calculated through a cost-benefit analysis, taking into account the allocation of enterprise resources.
It is a set of policies related to the utilization and management of IT resources. It can be said as a rule for users in using IT facilities. This policy needs to be made to ensure that the various facilities and infrastructure built can be used in accordance with the objectives of the institution by considering all aspects related to the rights and obligations of users. Examples of IT Policies: use of official email, account usage, backup and restore processes, etc. The basic objectives of policy formation are as follows:
1. Protecting users and existing information
2. Create rules as guidelines for users, system administrators, management and information system security officers
3. Assign security personnel for surveillance, investigation or inspection
4. Help reduce the risks that will arise
5. Establish official company regulations on security
IT Asset Management
An important part of an organization’s strategy, usually includes gathering detailed software and hardware inventory information that is used to make decisions about the distribution and purchase of hardware and software in a business environment. The purpose of implementing ITAM:
1. Savings through process improvement and support for strategic decision making
2. Improve control over inventory
3. Increase accountability to ensure needs are met
4. Improve asset performance and life cycle management
5. Increase process/application/business availability time
IT Risk Management
Is a process used to reduce and manage risks that may occur in the existing IT infrastructure or systems implemented in the organization. Risk management plays an important role as an action to protect system assets and information technology. Risk management includes three main processes, namely:
1. Risk Assessment: is the initial process in risk management to map the level of potential threats and risks that exist in the IT SDLC.
2. Risk Mitigation: is a step that involves efforts to prioritize, evaluate and carry out controls or controls that can reduce appropriate risks starting from the risk assessment process.
3. Evaluation and Assessment: evaluation and reassessment of existing and existing risks.
IT Governance is a branch of corporate governance that focuses on information technology and is related to performance and risk management. The IT Governance Institute (ITGI) formulates, IT Governance aims to ensure that IT supports and enables the achievement of business strategies and organizational goals. IT Governance emerged as a bridge between business and IT, due to the gap due to the technology being implemented not as expected.
IT Governance is an integral part of corporate governance through increasing effectiveness and efficiency in company processes. The main objectives of IT Governance are:
1. ensure that the use of information technology generates business value.
2. control performance management
3. reduce the risks associated with the use of IT.
IT Security or Information Technology Security is a subset of information security, also known as computer security. In the company, IT security is responsible for keeping all technology safe from various attacks or breaches of important personal data. IT security has 3 important areas, namely confidentiality, integrity and availability.
IT Service & Support Management
Refers to the implementation and management of IT service quality, to meet business needs and manage IT infrastructure tactically and strategically. ITSM focuses on the consumer’s perspective on the company’s business. ITSM deals with IT management operational issues and not on technology development. Example: the creation of a computer system used by the marketing and business development departments. Some of the ITSM processes are:
- How to maintain a balance between the information technology service business in accordance with customer needs
- Serving with quality IT and at a price that matches the effectiveness of IT provided by IT disediakan
- Fostering good cooperation between suppliers and customers by not disappointing each other and being able to provide the best service
- Fostering and serving with the best level of ability in serving customers which will affect the satisfaction that will be obtained by customers
Business Intelligence & Data Warehouse
Business Intelligence is the process of extracting a company’s operational data and gathering it into a data warehouse. Then the data in the data warehouse is processed using various statistical analyzes in the data mining process, so that patterns can be obtained from the data. The results of data simplification are presented to end users for business decision making. BI will function as an analyst, scorecard calculator, and provide recommendations to users on what action to take.
This is a form of supervision and control of the information technology infrastructure as a whole. The purpose of an IT audit is to review and evaluate the factors of availability, confidentiality and integrity (confidentiality, availability, integrity) of the organization’s information systems. IT Audit Type:
1. System and application, which is an audit that functions to check whether the system and application are in accordance with the needs of the organization, and have good enough control to ensure the validity, reliability, timeliness and security of input, process, and output on all system activities.
2. Information processing facility, which is a type of audit that functions to check whether the processing facility is under control to ensure the timeliness, accuracy, and efficiency of application processing under normal and adverse conditions.
3. System Development, which is a type of audit that functions to check whether the system developed has met the needs of the organization’s goals.
4. Enterprise architecture and IT management. An audit that examines whether IT management can develop organizational structures and procedures that ensure an efficient control and environment for information processing.
5. Client/Server, Telecommunication, Intranet and Internet. An audit that checks whether controls are working on the client, server, and the network that connects the client and server.